The variability in duration and severity of infection with Giardia lamblia is likely to be due to trophozoite interactions with immune and nonimmune components of the small intestinal milieu. Despite its potential importance, nothing is known of the isotype or the specificity of the secretory antibody response to G. lamblia. In the present study, we show that serum and secretory antibodies recognize many Giardia antigens whose expression is induced by exposure to selected intestinal conditions. Isotype-specific immunoblots of antigens from trophozoites grown at pH 7.0 without bile or at the intestinal pH of 7.8 with bile were reacted with milk or serum antibodies from subjects with or without histories of giardiasis. While the results were complex, several key observations emerged. Serum and secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA), IgM, and IgG antibodies reacted with many regulated antigens. Antigen recognition patterns varied with isotype and between milk and serum antibodies of the same isotype. Antigen recognition also differed among subjects. Antibodies from virtually every patient recognized some G. lamblia antigens. Furthermore, milk and/or serum samples from putative controls without histories of giardiasis were positive more frequently than would be predicted from published prevalence studies, suggesting either that these antibodies may be cross-reactive or that undiagnosed infections with G. lamblia may be more common than previously thought. Thus, recognition of neoantigens induced by host conditions may be due to conserved or cross-reactive epitopes which could constitute a form of immune evasion by G. lamblia.