Endogenous peptides bound to the constitutively expressed MHC class II molecules HLA-DR and HLA-DQ of the melanoma cell line FM3 were examined. By a combination of analytical methods (narrow bore and capillary reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with subsequent spotting on polyvinylidene difluoride membranes, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry, and Edman microsequencing), we were able to isolate and identify a panel of HLA-DR4/2 (HLA-DRB1*0401/0201/DRB5*0101)-associated self-peptides from the melanoma cell line FM3. Among ubiquitously HLA-DR-associated peptides such as peptides from the class II-associated invariant chain peptide region of the invariant chain, HLA-class I, the transferrin receptor, and the IFN-gamma receptor, we identified several potential tumor-associated antigens stemming from the MHC class I-restricted tumor antigen gp100, the Ca2(+)-binding protein annexin II, and proteins from the hsp70 family. Chinese hamster ovary cells cotransfected with HLA-DRA, DRB1*0401, and CD80 genes were shown specifically to prime T lymphocytes from HLA-DRB1*0401 donors to the annexin II and gp100 peptides. These results demonstrate that MHC class II molecules expressed by melanoma cells potentially present a variety of novel antigens to the immune system, some of which could be exploited for immunotherapy.