Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by extracellular senile plaques in the brain, containing amyloid-β peptide (Aβ). We identify immunological differences between AD patients and age-matched controls greater than those related to age itself. The biggest differences were in the CD4+ rather than the CD8+ T cell compartment resulting in lower proportions of naïve cells, more late-differentiated cells and higher percentages of activated CD4+CD25+ T cells without a Treg phenotype in AD patients. Changes to CD4+ cells might be the result of chronic stimulation by Aβ present in the blood. These findings have implications for diagnosis and understanding the aetiology of the disease.