Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is a matricellular protein with regulatory functions in inflammation and cancer. The type 1 repeats (TSR) domains of TSP-1 have been shown to interact with a wide range of proteins that result in the anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor properties of TSP-1. To ascertain possible functions and evaluate potential therapeutic effects of TSRs in inflammatory bowel disease, we conducted clinical, histological and microarray analyses on a mouse model of induced colitis. We used dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to induce colitis in wild-type (WT) mice for 7 days. Simultaneously, mice were injected with either saline or one form of TSP-1 derived recombinant proteins, containing either (1) the three type 1 repeats of the TSP-1 (3TSR), (2) the second type 1 repeat (TSR2), or (3) TSR2 with the RFK sequence (TSR2+RFK). Total RNA isolated from the mice colons were processed and hybridized to mouse arrays. Array data were validated by real-time qPCR and immunohistochemistry. Histological and disease indices reveal that the mice treated with the TSRs show different patterns of leukocytic infiltration and that 3TSR treatment was the most effective in decreasing inflammation in DSS-induced colitis. Transcriptional profiling revealed differentially expressed (DE) genes, with the 3TSR-treated mice showing the least deviation from the WT-water controls. In conclusion, this study shows that 3TSR treatment is effective in attenuating the inflammatory response to DSS injury. In addition, the transcriptomics work unveils novel genetic data that suggest beneficial application of the TSR domains in inflammatory bowel disease.