A panel of 7 human cytomegalovirus (CMV) epitope peptides and corresponding major histocompatibility class 1 tetramers was used to evaluate cellular immunity in healthy seropositive donors and in hematopoietic stem-cell transplant recipients. Broad CMV-specific T cell responses to epitopes were found within several CMV polypeptides and were restricted by multiple human leukocyte antigen alleles. Their cytotoxic functionality was evaluated by use of an assay that measures transient surface levels of lysosomal membrane proteins LAMP-1 (CD107a) and LAMP-2 (CD107b) after peptide stimulation. This assay can be combined with tetramer staining of antigen-specific CD8(+) T lymphocytes and has potential as a surrogate marker for cytotoxic function. CD8(+) T lymphocytes specific for epitopes within the pp65 or pp50 gene products exhibited significantly higher functionality, compared with populations recognizing CMV major immediate early-1 epitopes. These functional differences between T lymphocyte populations within the same individual may have implications for protection against CMV.