Reconstitution of cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific CD8(+) T cells is essential to the control of CMV infection in CMV-positive recipients (R(+)) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). Six-color flow cytometry was used to assess the functional profile of CMV-specific CD8(+) T cells in 62 of 178 R(+) HCT recipients followed virologically for CMV reactivation. R(+) recipients receiving grafts from CMV-negative donors (D(-); D(-)/R(+)) reconstituted fewer multifunctional CD8(+) T cells expressing tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta (MIP-1beta), and CD107 in addition to interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), compared with D(+)/R(+) recipients. Unlike monofunctional CD8(+) T cells secreting IFN-gamma, which were abundantly generated during CMV reactivation in D(-)/R(+) recipients, the relative lack of multifunctional CD8(+) T cells persisted until at least 1 year post-HCT. D(-)/R(+) recipients were more likely to require recurrent and prolonged use of antivirals. These findings were robust to statistical adjustment for pretransplant factors, as well as for posttransplant factors including graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and its treatment by steroids. These analyses suggest that D(+)/R(+) transplants, on average, generate higher levels of multifunctional CMV-specific T cells and require less antiviral therapy compared with D(-)/R(+) HCT recipients. These results highlight the benefit of D(+) donors in improving outcomes of R(+) HCT recipients by reducing the duration and recurrent need of antiviral treatment, aided by increased levels of multifunctional CMV-specific T cells.