To study the role of the programmed death-1 molecule (PD-1) in cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and disease after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), 206 subjects were followed prospectively for immune response to CMV and assigned to 3 groups based on CMV outcome. The subjects were analyzed retrospectively for PD-1 expression in cryopreserved CD4+ and CD8+T cells collected at days 40, 90, 120, 150, 180, and 360 posttransplantation. HCT recipients with CMV disease (n=14) were compared with recipients with prolonged CMV infection, but no CMV disease (median duration of infection, 3 months; n=14) and with controls with no CMV infection who received similar transplants (n=22). The CMV disease group had a significantly higher mean fluorescein intensity of PD-1 in CD4+ (P < .05) and CD8+ (P < .05) lymphocytes at all time points studied. PD-1 expression also was significantly elevated in those with severe acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD), including the no-viremia group. The data suggest that PD-1 is induced by aGVHD even in the absence of CMV infection. This enhanced PD-1 expression during severe aGVHD and with CMV reactivation could explain the known role of aGVHD as a risk factor for CMV disease.