Perineural invasion (PNI) is a tropism of tumor cells for nerve bundles located in the surrounding stroma. It is a pathological feature observed in certain tumors, referred to as neurotropic malignancies, that severely limits the ability to establish local control of disease and results in pain, recurrent growth, and distant metastases. Despite the importance of PNI as a prognostic indicator, its biological mechanisms are poorly understood. The semaphorins and their receptors, the plexins, compose a family of proteins originally shown to be important in nerve cell adhesion, axon migration, and proper central nervous system development. Emerging evidence has demonstrated that these factors are expressed in tissues outside of the nervous system and represent a widespread signal transduction system that is involved in the regulation of motility and adhesion in different cell types. We believe that the plexins and semaphorins, which are strongly expressed in both axons and many carcinomas, play a role in PNI. In this study, we show that plexin-B1 is overexpressed in tissues and cell lines from neurotropic malignancies and is attracted to nerves that express its ligand, semaphorin 4D, in a Rho/Rho kinase-dependent manner. We also demonstrate that nerves are attracted to tumors through this same system of proteins, suggesting that both plexin-B1 and semaphorin 4D are important in the promotion of PNI.