P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is a purinergic ion-channel receptor. We have previously shown that the activation of P2X7R in alveolar type I cells stimulates surfactant secretion in alveolar type II cells. In this study, we determined whether miR-150 regulates P2X7R-mediated surfactant secretion. The miR-150 expression level in alveolar type II cells was much higher than alveolar type I cells, which was inversely correlated with the P2X7R protein level. An adenovirus expressing miR-150 significantly reduced the P2X7R protein expression in E10 cells, an alveolar type I cell line. Furthermore, pre-treatment of E10 cells with the adenovirus reduced the surfactant secretion induced by E10 cell conditioned medium. Our study demonstrates that miR-150 regulates surfactant secretion through P2X7R.