Experiments have been carried out to try and answer two questions on the role of proteins in chromosome banding firstly, what degree of protein extraction is required before banding can be produced; and secondly, to what extent are redistribution and reorganization of chromosomal components required for the production of banding. Partial extraction of all histones, and of a group of non-histones with molecular weights mainly between 50,000 and 70,000 appears to be necessary before G-, C- or R-banding can be produced. More extensive 'dehistonization' to produce chromosome scaffolds inhibits the production of all types of bands. Protein-protein and protein-DNA cross-linking inhibits all types of banding tested, the degree of inhibition being roughly related to the degree of cross-linking, but not apparently to the type of cross-linking. The results of both sets of experiments indicate that chromosome banding of all types is dependent on the prior loss from chromosomes of a specific set of proteins, and on some alteration of the arrangement of remaining chromosomal components during the banding procedure.