BACKGROUNDContinuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment is often prescribed for youth as a treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Efficacy research in youth is limited, though some evidence suggests that it may relieve symptoms of OSA and possibly prevent future physical, emotional, and behavioural complications. However, the device must be used consistently for benefits to be realised. Non-adherence to medical treatment is prevalent among youth with chronic illness, yet little is known regarding adherence to CPAP in paediatric OSA.METHODSUsing a sample of 51 youth (age 8-17 years) recruited from a paediatric sleep specialty clinic, the aims of the current study were to: (1) present descriptive data regarding CPAP adherence in youth with OSA, and (2) develop a psychometrically sound measure of barriers for adherence to CPAP use for youth with OSA.RESULTSResults indicated that adherence to CPAP is poor: youth in the current sample used their CPAP on average 3.35 h per night. The adherence barriers measure demonstrated excellent psychometric properties.CONCLUSIONSThe adherence barriers to CPAP questionnaire has the potential to be a useful clinic-based tool for identifying patient-specific issues with CPAP adherence in youth with OSA.