The pathology of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS) is largely attributed to activated autoreactive effector T lymphocytes. The influence of microRNAs on the immune response has been shown to occur in different pathways of lymphocyte differentiation and function. Here, the expression of the miRNAs miR-15a/16-1 in PBMC, CD4(+), and CD8(+) from RR-MS patients has been investigated. BCL2, a known miR-15a/16-1 target, has also been analyzed. The results have shown that miR-15a/16-1 is downregulated in CD4(+) T cells, whereas BCL2 is highly expressed in RR-MS patients only. Our data suggest that miR-15a/16-1 can also modulate the BCL2 gene expression in CD4(+) T cells from RR-MS patients, thereby affecting apoptosis processes.