BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVEAllogeneic transplantation can not be offered to many patients due to potential side-effects of conventional conditioning. Dose-reduced conditioning approaches improve tolerability, however, treatment efficacy may be reduced as well. We have, therefore, developed a dose intense but toxicity reduced conditioning regimen based on treosulfan and fludarabine and report first results.PATIENTS AND METHODS65 patients with a median age of 50 years were transplanted from related (n = 21) or unrelated donors (n = 44) after conditioning with treosulfan (3 x 10, 3 x 12 or 3 x 14 g/m(2) i. v.) and fludarabine (5 x 30 mg/m(2) i. v.). 21 patients were in complete remission (CR) and 44 patients had not reached a CR at the time of transplantation. 59 of 65 patients were considered unfit for a conventional conditioning regimen.RESULTSThe actuarial overall survival after 3 years is 59.2 %, the event-free survival 40.1 %. Patients with a related donor or transplantation in CR had a better overall (85.4 resp. 74.2 %) and event-free survival (52.2 % resp. 61.9 %). The cumulative incidence of relapse at 3 years was 26.2 %. Non-relapse mortality at day 100 is 17.4 % (cumulative incidence). In stepwise Cox regression analyses for overall survival, event-free survival and non-relapse mortality the covariables transplantation in CR vs. not in CR and the donor status were shown to be influential.CONCLUSIONSThese results with a conditioning therapy of treosulfan and fludarabine indicate that patients despite higher age, concomitant disease or after intensive pretreatment can be successfully transplanted without increased treatment-related mortality.