We studied the feasibility of using single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as antigen carriers to improve immune responses to peptides that are weak immunogens, a characteristic typical of human tumor antigens. Binding and presentation of peptide antigens by the MHC molecules of antigen presenting cells (APCs) is essential to mounting an effective immune response. The Wilm's tumor protein (WT1) is upregulated in many human leukemias and cancers and several vaccines directed at this protein are in human clinical trials. WT1 peptide 427 induces human CD4 T cell responses in the context of multiple human HLA-DR.B1 molecules, but the peptide has a poor binding affinity to BALB/c mouse MHC class II molecules. We used novel, spectrally quantifiable chemical approaches to covalently append large numbers of peptide ligands (0.4 mmol/g) onto solubilized SWNT scaffolds. Peptide-SWNT constructs were rapidly internalized into professional APCs (dendritic cells and macrophages) within minutes in vitro, in a dose dependent manner. Immunization of BALB/c mice with the SWNT-peptide constructs mixed with immunological adjuvant induced specific IgG responses against the peptide, while the peptide alone or peptide mixed with the adjuvant did not induce such a response. The conjugation of the peptide to SWNT did not enhance the peptide-specific CD4 T cell response in human and mouse cells, in vitro. The solubilized SWNTs alone were nontoxic in vitro, and we did not detect antibody responses to SWNT in vivo. These results demonstrated that SWNTs are able to serve as antigen carriers for delivery into APCs to induce humoral immune responses against weak tumor antigens.