Cyclin D1 is a target for positive regulation by estrogens in growth-responsive cells, in which it mediates their mitogenic effects. Amplification and overexpression of the cyclin D1 gene (CCND1) might thus represent a genetic lesion inducing hormone-independent growth of transformed cells. Indeed, cyclin D1 overexpression has been found in up to 50% of primary breast cancers, and in about one-third of these cases, this is linked to amplification of the 11q13 chromosomal region, which also includes the CCND1 gene. These tumors are predominantly estrogen receptor-positive, and for this reason, these patients are often selected for adjuvant antiestrogen therapy. No information is available, however, as to whether cyclin D1 overexpression due to gene amplification might interfere with and reduce antiestrogen efficacy. This was investigated here by taking advantage of an experimental model that reproduces cyclin D1 overexpression resulting from increased CCND1 gene dosage in hormone-responsive human breast cancer cells. For this, MCF-7 cells stably transfected with a tet-inducible cyclin D1 expression vector were tested for their in vitro response to steroidal (ICI 182,780) and nonsteroidal (trans-4-hydroxytamoxifen) antiestrogens under condition of low (endogenous only) or high (exogenous) cyclin D1 levels. Results show that although cyclin D1 overexpression seems to interfere with the early cell cycle effects of antiestrogens, it does not prevent their cytostatic actions, so that growth of cyclin-overexpressing MCF-7 cells is still efficiently inhibited in vitro by these drugs.