Major technological advances have made proteomics an extremely active field for biomarker discovery and validation in recent years. These improvements have lead to an increased emphasis on larger scale, faster and more efficient methods for protein biomarker discoveries in human tissues, cells and biofluids. However, most current proteomic methodologies for biomarker discovery and validation are not highly automated and generally labour intensive and expensive. Improved automation as well as software programs capable of handling a large amount of data are essential in order to reduce the cost of discovery and increase the throughput. In this review, we will discuss and describe the label-free mass spectrometry-based protein quantification technologies and a case study utilizing one of these methods for biomarker discovery.