The steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) gene encodes a transcription factor playing a pivotal role in the regulation of adrenogenital development. We have recently shown that SF-1 is amplified in childhood adrenocortical tumours (ACT). This study was aimed to assess if an increase in SF-1 gene copy number was associated with increased protein levels and to study the correlation between SF-1 expression and ACT clinical parameters. An increased SF-1 copy number was detected in eight of the 10 ACT cases studied. Conversely, the SF-1 protein was found to be overexpressed in all cases, compared to normal age-matched adrenal glands. No significant correlation was found between SF-1 protein levels and its gene copy number. Furthermore, no significant correlation existed with histological grade or with the clinical manifestation or evolution of disease. This data show that SF-1 overexpression is widespread in childhood ACT and is likely to play a role in its pathogenesis.