Pediatric adrenocortical tumors (ACT) are rare and often fatal malignancies; little is known regarding their etiology and biology. To provide additional insight into the nature of ACT, we determined the gene expression profiles of 24 pediatric tumors (five adenomas, 18 carcinomas, and one undetermined) and seven normal adrenal glands. Distinct patterns of gene expression, validated by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analysis, were identified that distinguish normal adrenal cortex from tumor. Differences in gene expression were also identified between adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas. In addition, pediatric adrenocortical carcinomas were found to share similar patterns of gene expression when compared with those published for adult ACT. This study represents the first microarray analysis of childhood ACT. Our findings lay the groundwork for establishing gene expression profiles that may aid in the diagnosis and prognosis of pediatric ACT, and in the identification of signaling pathways that contribute to this disease.