PURPOSECalculation of PSA is possible in human fluids even if it presents in very low concentrations with the help of hypersensitive immunodiagnostic methods. The periurethral glands represent one of the potential sources of urine prostate specific antigen (uPSA) in both sexes but the purpose of studying PSA levels in children is still unclear in the literature. In this pilot study we studied uPSA in a small cohort of normal, pre and post pubertal children, in relation to standard anthropometric variables.MATERIALS AND METHODSThe study cohort consisted of 58 children 5-14 years old (42 boys/16 girls). Height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and the respective stature-for-age, weight-for-age and BMI-for-age percentiles of the sample were determined. uPSA levels were measured using a third generation immunodiagnostic method (DPC Immulite that has a lower limit of detection of 3 ng/L. When levels of PSA were above the upper limit of detection, uPSA levels were assessed using the ROCHE technique.RESULTSuPSA levels tend to be higher in male than female children (p = 0.091, linear regression analysis). uPSA was measurable only in 3/16 girls (18.75%). Measurable uPSA was found in 18/42 boys (42.8%). The range of urine PSA in boys was 0-161000 ng/L (mean 10561.9 +/- 31830.48 ng/L). Statistical analysis with linear regression showed correlation with height and age in boys.CONCLUSIONSThe use of hypersensitive assays allows calculation of uPSA in childhood. The values of this variable are measurable in both sexes and related with gender. In boys, uPSA was correlated with age and height but not with other variables tested. Further studies are required to clarify this field.