The biosynthesis of morphine, a stereochemically complex alkaloid, has been shown to occur in plants and animals. A search in the human genome for methyltransferases capable of catalyzing the N-methylation of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, as biosynthetic precursors of morphine, yielded two enzymes, PNMT (EC 188.8.131.52) and NMT (EC 184.108.40.206). Introduction of an N-terminal poly-histidine tag enabled purification of both proteins by immobilized metal affinity chromatography. Recombinant PNMT and NMT were characterized for their catalytic activity towards four benzylisoquinolines tetrahydropapaveroline (THP), 6-O-methyl-THP, 4'-O-methyl-THP and norreticuline. Human PNMT accepted none of the offered alkaloids and was only active with its established substrate, phenylethanolamine. The second enzyme, human NMT, converted all four benzylisoquinolines, however, with a strict preference for (R)-configured morphine precursors. Determination of kinetic parameters of NMT for the four (R)-configured benzylisoquinoline alkaloids by LC-MS/MS revealed (R)-norreticuline to be the best substrate with an even higher catalytic activity as compared to the previously reported natural substrate tryptamine. In addition, isolation of the morphine precursor salutaridine from urine of mice injected (i.p.) with (R)-THP provides new evidence that the initial steps of morphine biosynthesis in mammals occur stereochemically and sequentially differently than in plants and suggests an involvement of the herein characterized (R)-specific NMT.