Autophagy performs a variety of established functions during plant growth and development. Recently, autophagy has been further implicated in the regulation of programmed cell death induced during the plant innate immune response. In this chapter we describe specific mechanisms through which autophagy may contribute to a successful defense against pathogen invasion. Accumulating evidence shows that the plant immune system utilizes the chloroplasts as primary sites for the regulation of cell death programs. Viruses also appear to utilize the chloroplast as a site of replication and accumulation, potentially inactivating chloroplast defense signaling in the process. Autophagy-like mechanisms have been observed to target the chloroplast, which we refer to as "chlorophagy," potentially targeting invasive viruses for degradation or regulating chloroplast-based signaling during the immune response. We hypothesize that chlorophagy is significant for the execution of plant immune defenses, during both basal and effector-triggered immunity.