The effects of insecticide-impregnated bed nets on mortality and morbidity from malaria have been investigated during one malaria transmission season in a group of rural Gambian children aged 6 months to 5 years. Sleeping under impregnated nets was associated with an overall reduction in mortality of about 60% in children aged 1-4 years. Mortality was not reduced further by chemoprophylaxis with Maloprim given weekly by village health workers throughout the rainy season. Episodes of fever associated with malaria parasitaemia were reduced by 45% among children who slept under impregnated nets. The addition of chemoprophylaxis provided substantial additional benefit against clinical attacks of malaria; 158 episodes were recorded among 946 children who slept under impregnated nets but who also received chemoprophylaxis. Chemoprophylaxis reduced the prevalence of splenomegaly and parasitaemia at the end of the malaria transmission season by 63% and 83% respectively. Thus, insecticide-impregnated bed nets provided significant protection in children against overall mortality, mortality attributed to malaria, clinical attacks of malaria, and malaria infection. The addition of chemoprophylaxis provided substantial additional protection against clinical attacks of malaria and malaria infection but not against death.