A pilot safety and immunogenicity trial of the malaria vaccine SPf66 has been undertaken in 150 Gambian infants. No significant systemic side effects were recorded but modest local reactions were seen after the administration of a third 1.0 mg dose. SPf66 produced in Colombia was more immunogenic than SPf66 produced in the USA and a 1.0 mg dose of each vaccine gave higher antibody levels than a 0.5 mg dose. However, antibody levels fell rapidly after administration of the third dose of vaccine and showed little change over the following malaria transmission season. The incidence of clinical malaria was higher among children who received SPf66 than among children who received inactivated polio vaccine, the effect being most marked among children who received 1.0 mg Colombian SPf66. As the trial was not designed to measure the effect of SPf66 on morbidity from malaria, the significance of this finding is uncertain.