We have identified an autoantigen that is recognized by antibodies from an 18-year-old female with a history of recurrent infections who later in her clinical course developed Raynaud's phenomenon and telangiectasias. By indirect immunofluorescence (IIF), the index serum produced a unique cytoplasmic discrete speckled (CDS) staining pattern that partially colocalized with early endosome antigen 1 (EEA1) but not Golgi complex or other cytoplasmic organelles in HEp-2 cells. When HEp-2 cells were treated with 0.1 N HCl, the cytoplasmic speckled staining of the index serum was markedly decreased, suggesting that the reactive antigen was soluble. Western blot analysis showed a reactive approximately 97 kDa protein in a saline soluble protein preparation from HeLa cells. Mass spectrometric analysis of the excised 97 kDa band that was immunoprecipitated from HeLa cell extracts identified GRASP-1 as a possible target. The index serum and anti-GRASP-1 antibodies colocalized to structures in the cytoplasm of HEp-2 cells. Synthetic peptides representing the full-length GRASP-1 protein were used to identify reactive epitopes. Like many other cytoplasmic autoantigens, GRASP-1 has numerous coiled-coil domains throughout the protein with the exception of short segments at the amino and carboxyl terminus.