Early endosome antigen 1 (EEA1), a peripheral membrane protein associated with the cytoplasmic face of early endosomes, controls vesicle fusion during endocytosis, as extensively studied in non-neuronal cells. In neurons, early endosomes are involved in recycling of synaptic vesicles and neurotransmitter receptors. Since certain patients bearing autoantibodies that target EEA1 develop neurological disease, we studied the subcellular distribution of EEA1 in neurons and the effect on neurotransmission of purified immunoglobulins from the serum of a patient bearing EEA1 autoantibodies. EEA1 was localized in the soma and in the postsynaptic nerve terminals. Electrophysiological recordings in hippocampal slices including purified EEA1 antibodies in the patch pipette solution, revealed a run-up of AMPA, N-methyl-D-aspartate and kainate receptor-mediated excitatory post-synaptic currents recorded from CA3 pyramidal neurons, which was absent in the recordings obtained in the presence of control human immunoglobulin G. Inclusion of human EEA1 antibodies had no effect on inhibitory post-synaptic responses. Recordings in the presence of a dominant-negative C-terminal EEA1 deletion mutant produced a similar effect as observed with human anti-EEA1 antibodies. This specific effect on the excitatory synaptic transmission may be due to the impairment of internalization of specific glutamate receptors and their subsequent accumulation in the synapse. These results may account for the neurological deficits observed in some patients developing EEA1 autoantibodies.