We explored whether human rotavirus vaccine had any efficacy against norovirus (NV)-associated gastroenteritis in young children. In an efficacy trial of rotavirus vaccine, 405 infants were immunized with a human rotavirus vaccine or placebo at a ratio of 21, and prospectively followed for acute gastroenteritis (AGE) from approximately 2 months to 2 y of age. Multiplex real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (Mrt RT-PCR) assays were used for detection and quantitation of NVs of genogroup I (GI) and genogroup II (GII) in stool specimens. NVs were detected in 155 (32%) of 485 episodes of AGE. Of these, NV was the only gastroenteritis virus detected in the stools in 142 (29%) episodes. GI and GII NVs were found in 12% and 88% of the cases, respectively. NV as the only gastroenteritis virus was detected in 36% of the infants in the rotavirus vaccine group and 27% in the placebo group. The clinical severity of NV-associated AGE in the vaccine and placebo recipients was not different. NVs were the most common etiologic agents of AGE in children under 2 y of age. Human rotavirus vaccine did not protect against NV gastroenteritis.