A large number of ion channels, enzymes, pumps and binding proteins participate in the generation of intracellular Ca2+ signals and their decoding. Ca2+ signalling takes place in the form of oscillations, waves and sparks. Such Ca2+ signals occur in almost all cells and regulate diverse cell functions. Perturbation of Ca2+ signalling leads to disease states. Drugs that act on Ca2+-signalling are commonly used in treatment of several diseases. Different molecules involved in Ca2+ signalling are potential targets for development of new therapies. Thus, basic research in Ca2+ signalling increases our understanding of the pathogenesis of diseases at a molecular level and the likelihood of development of new therapeutic modalities.