Ischemia/reperfusion injury, which is commonly seen in the field of renal surgery or transplantation, is a major cause of acute renal failure. The objective of the present study was to examine the role of nebivolol in modulating peroxynitrite species-induced inflammation and apoptosis after renal warm ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of nebivolol on the renal warm ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats treated with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. After right nephrectomy, nebivolol was administered for 15 days. On the 16(th) day, ischemia was induced in contra lateral kidney for 45 min, followed by reperfusion for 24 hr. Renal function, inflammation, and apoptosis were estimated at the end of 24 hr reperfusion. Nebivolol improved the renal dysfunction and reduced inflammation and apoptosis after renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. In conclusion, nebivolol shows potent anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties due to its NO-releasing property. These findings may have major implications in the treatment of human ischemic acute renal failure.