Embryonic neuron C1s (ENC1s) are bilateral serotonergic neurons that function as cilioexcitatory motor neurons in embryonic development of the pond snail, Helisoma trivolvis. Recent experiments demonstrated that these neurons stimulate cilia-driven embryo rotation in response to hypoxia. In the present study, a comprehensive anatomic analysis of these cells and their target ciliary structures was done to address the following questions (1) Does ENC1 have a morphology consistent with an oxygen-sensitive sensory cell; (2) Is the development of ENC1's neurite outgrowth pathway coordinated with the development of its target effectors, the pedal and dorsolateral ciliary bands; and (3) What is the anatomic basis of ENC1-ciliary communication? By using an array of microscopic techniques on live and serotonin-immunostained embryos, we found that each ENC1 possessed an apical dendrite that was capped with an integral dendritic knob penetrating the embryo surface. The dendritic knobs contained both microvilli and nonmotile cilia that suggested a sensory transduction role. Each ENC1 also possessed a descending projection, whose development was characterized by the rapid formation of the primary neurite pathway between stages E13 and E15, with the primary neurite of the right ENC1 developing in advance of its contralateral homologue. Secondary neurite branches formed between stages E15 and E30 in a spatiotemporal pattern that closely matched the development of the dorsolateral and pedal bands of cilia. Both dorsolateral and pedal ciliated cells formed basal processes that contacted ENC1 neurites. Finally, gap junction profiles were observed at neurite-neurite, neurite-ciliary cell, and ciliary cell-ciliary cell apposition sites, whereas putative chemical synaptic profiles were observed at neurite-neurite and neurite-ciliary cell apposition sites.