Epithelium-specific ETS-2 and ETS-3 are transcription factors that have been proposed as asthma candidate genes. To investigate the association of sequence variants in these genes with asthma, we conducted a case-control association analysis in a sample of 311 white subjects with asthma and 177 white subjects without asthma. Common polymorphisms in these genes were detected by sequencing DNA from 32 cell lines obtained from Coriel (Camden, NJ). Seven noncoding or synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms were detected three in epithelium-specific ETS-2 and four in epithelium-specific ETS-3. Subjects were genotyped at all loci by mass spectroscopy. To ensure the suitability of our control subjects, we also genotyped subjects at 49 unlinked polymorphisms evenly distributed throughout the autosomes and found no evidence of population stratification. Logistic regression adjusted for age and sex suggested a weak association of one epithelium-specific ETS-2 polymorphism with asthma diagnosis (odds ratio = 1.89, 95% confidence interval = 1.13-3.18, p = 0.02). Total serum immunoglobulin E and FEV1 predicted levels were not associated with any of the polymorphisms. Extended haplotyping indicated linkage disequilibrium in these genes; however, no association or epistatic interaction was found. This study suggests that epithelium-specific ETS-2 and ETS-3 genes are unlikely to contain polymorphic loci that have a major impact on asthma susceptibility in our population.