The principal purpose of the study was to evaluate in vitro the potential ability of fungal isolates obtained from the painted layer of frescoes and surrounding air to induce symptoms of fresco deterioration, associated with their growth and metabolism, so that the risk of such deterioration can be precisely assessed and appropriate conservation treatments formulated. Biodegradative properties of the tested microfungi were qualitatively characterized through the use of a set of special agar plates CaCO3 glucose agar (calcite dissolution), casein nutrient agar (casein hydrolysis), Czapek-Dox minimal medium (pigment secretion); and Czapek-Dox minimal broth (acid and alkali production). Most of the tested isolates (71.05%) demonstrated at least one of the degradative properties, with Penicillium bilaiae as the most potent, since it tested positive in all four. The remaining isolates (28.95%) showed no deterioration capabilities and were hence considered unlikely to partake in the complex process of fungal deterioration of murals via the tested mechanisms. The obtained results clearly indicate that utilization of fast and simple plate assays can provide insight into the biodegradative potential of deteriogenic fungi and allow for their separation from allochthonous transients, a prerequisite for precise assessment of the amount of risk posed by a thriving mycobiota to mural paintings.