Evidence was acquired prior to suggest that the vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) but not other glutamate transporters were inhibited by structures containing a weakly basic α-amino group. To test this hypothesis, a series of analogs using a hydantoin (pK(a)∼9.1) isostere were synthesized and analyzed as inhibitors of VGLUT and the obligate cystine-glutamate transporter (system x(c)(-)). Of the hydantoin analogs tested, a thiophene-5-carboxaldehyde analog 2l and a bis-hydantoin 4b were relatively strong inhibitors of VGLUT reducing uptake to less than 6% of control at 5mM but few inhibited system x(c)(-) greater than 50% of control. The benzene-2,4-disulfonic acid analog 2b and p-diaminobenzene analog 2e were also good hydantoin-based inhibitors of VGLUT reducing uptake by 11% and 23% of control, respectively, but neither analog was effective as a system x(c)(-) inhibitor. In sum, a hydantoin isostere adds the requisite chemical properties needed to produce selective inhibitors of VGLUT.