One of the mechanisms through which protein levels in the cell are controlled is through transcriptional regulation. Certain regions, called cis-regulatory elements, on the DNA are footprints for the trans-acting proteins involved in transcription, either for the positioning of the basic transcriptional machinery or for the regulation - in simple terms turn on or turn off - thereof. The basic transcriptional machinery is DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNAP) which synthesizes various types of RNA and core promoters on the DNA are used to position the RNAP. Other nearby regions will regulate the transcription in prokaryotic organisms operators are involved; in eukaryotic organisms, proximal promoter regions, enhancers, silencers, and insulators are present. This chapter will describe the various DNA regions involved in transcription and transcriptional regulation.