The objective of this work is to produce doxorubicin-loaded galactose-conjugated poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) to be specifically recognised by human hepatoma cellular carcinoma (Hep G2) cells and assess NPs cytotoxicity. Doxorubicin-unloaded and doxorubicin-loaded galactose-conjugated PLGA NPs were prepared using an emulsion method and characterised for morphology, size, drug release behaviour, Hep G2 recognition and cell cytotoxicity. The produced doxorubicin-loaded PLGA-galactose-conjugate nanoparticles (PLGA-GAL NPs) are spherical in shape with a size of 365 ± 74 nm, a drug encapsulation efficiency of 69% and released in a biphasic pattern with higher release rates at pH 5. In vitro cell studies confirmed the specific interaction between the receptors of Hep G2 and the PLGA-GAL NPs. Cell cytotoxicity tests showed that unloaded NPs are non-toxic and that doxorubicin-loaded NPs caused a cellular viability decrease of around 80%, therefore representing a promising approach to improve liver-specific drug delivery.