Levels of serum autoantibodies (aAb) to glutamate receptors and products of nitric oxide (NO) metabolism, i.e., nitrates and nitrites, were assayed in children with recent craniocerebral trauma (CCT) of different levels of severity. All the children showed increases in serum aAb to both AMPA and NMDA receptor subtypes from day 1 to day 10 after trauma. The highest levels of serum aAb were to the NMDA subtype of glutamate receptor, which was characteristic of children with mild CCT (MCCT), with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores of 14-15 points. Levels of aAb to NMDA (NR2A) receptors in children with severe CCT (SCCT, GCS < 9 points) were lower than in children with MCCT, the lowest levels being seen in the group of children with lethal CCT (SCCT-2). Serum concentrations of NO metabolites increased by large factors in the group of children with SCCT, indicating marked brain hypoxia.