We hypothesized that mutations that inactivate phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity and lead to increased cAMP and cyclic guanosine monophosphate levels may be associated with prostate cancer (PCa). We sequenced the entire PDE coding sequences in the DNA of 16 biopsy samples from PCa patients. Novel mutations were confirmed in the somatic or germline state by Sanger sequencing. Data were then compared to the 1000 Genome Project. PDE, CREB and pCREB protein expression was also studied in all samples, in both normal and abnormal tissue, by immunofluorescence. We identified three previously described PDE sequence variants that were significantly more frequent in PCa. Four novel sequence variations, one each in the PDE4B,PDE6C, PDE7B and PDE10A genes, respectively, were also found in the PCa samples. Interestingly, PDE10A and PDE4B novel variants that were present in 19 and 6% of the patients were found in the tumor tissue only. In patients carrying PDE defects, there was pCREB accumulation (P<0.001), and an increase of the pCREBCREB ratio (patients 0.97±0.03; controls 0.52±0.03; P-value <0.001) by immunohistochemical analysis. We conclude that PDE sequence variants may play a role in the predisposition and/or progression to PCa at the germline and/or somatic state respectively.