Pompe disease is a genetic disorder resulting from a deficiency of lysosomal acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA) that manifests as a clinical spectrum with regard to symptom severity and rate of progression. In this study, we used microarrays to examine gene expression from the muscle of two cohorts of infantile-onset Pompe patients to identify transcriptional differences that may contribute to the disease phenotype. We found strong similarities among the gene expression profiles generated from biceps and quadriceps, and identified a number of signaling pathways altered in both cohorts. We also found that infantile-onset Pompe patient muscle had a gene expression pattern characteristic of immature or regenerating muscle, and exhibited many transcriptional markers of inflammation, despite having few overt signs of inflammatory infiltrate. Further, we identified genes exhibiting correlation between expression at baseline and response to therapy. This combined dataset can serve as a foundation for biological discovery and biomarker development to improve the treatment of Pompe disease.