Cellular and cytokine adjuvants, often immune effector cells and soluble factors, respectively, are supplemental and/or follow-up treatments of human origin for cancer patients who have unsatisfactory clinical responses to conventional chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery. Since many human studies with these reagents are in their infancy, extensive data collection is only now being performed to determine which strategy provides the greatest therapeutic benefit. Research published in the literature since the genesis of this approach to cancer treatment is summarized in this report. Methodologies attempting to generate anticancer responses by provoking or enhancing the patient's own immune system are new compared with the other standard types of cancer treatment. Although a few encouraging human studies can be discussed, many of the most promising techniques are only now being transferred from the laboratory to the clinic. The administration of immune effector cells in combination with immunomodulators, such as interferons or interleukins, often enhances clinical outcome. The literature cited in this report indicate that immune-cell- and cytokine-based therapies hold promise in our attempts to improve the quality and duration of life in those with cancer. With each report reaching the literature, more effective clinical trials are being designed and implemented.