Analysis of the O-chain subunit of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) isolated from Bordetella trematum, a recently identified human pathogen, was undertaken. The polysaccharide (PS) moiety was shown to contain only two O-chain subunits, which differed in the anomeric bond of their first sugar. A trisaccharide fragment resulting from the cleavage of a FucNAc glycosidic bond was isolated after treatment of the PS with anhydrous HF. Nitrous deamination of the LPS led to the release of the following heptasaccharide corresponding to two trisaccharide subunits linked to an anhydromannitol residue. beta-ManNAc3NAmA-(1-4)-beta-ManNAc3NAmA-(1-3)-alpha-FucNAc-(1-4)-beta-ManNAc3NAmA-(1-4)-beta-ManNAc3NAmA-(1-3)-beta-FucNAc-(1-6)-2,5-anhManol.