The transcription factor Bright up-regulates Ig H chain production from select V region promoters and requires Bright dimerization, Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk), and the Btk substrate, TFII-I, for this activity. Defects in Btk cause X-linked immunodeficiency disease in mice and humans. Btk-deficient mice exhibit decreased serum IgM production, B cell developmental blocks, absence of peritoneal B1 cells, and subnormal immune responses against Ags, including phosphorylcholine, which confer protection against Streptococcus pneumoniae. Transgenic mice expressing dominant-negative Bright share similarities with Btk-deficient mice, including decreased serum IgM, poor anti-phosphorylcholine responses, and slightly reduced numbers of mature B cells. Although dominant-negative Bright mice developed B1 B cells, these were functionally deficient in Ig secretion. These data suggest a mechanistic explanation for the abnormal responses to phosphorylcholine observed in Btk-deficient mice, and indicate that Bright functions in a subset of Btk-dependent pathways in vivo, particularly those responses dominated by B1 B cells.