Somatostatin 28 immunoreactivity (Sst28-ir) identifies a specific subset of mossy fiber terminals in the adult mouse cerebellum. By using double-labeling immunohistochemistry, we determined that Sst28-ir is associated with presynaptic mossy fiber terminal rosettes, and not Purkinje cells, Golgi cells, or unipolar brush cells. Sst28-ir mossy fibers are restricted to the central zone (lobules VI/VII) and nodular zone (lobules IX, X) of the vermis, and the paraflocculus and flocculus. Within each transverse zone the mossy fiber terminal fields form a reproducible array of parasagittal stripes. The boundaries of Sst28-ir stripes align with a specific array of Purkinje cell stripes revealed by using immunocytochemistry for the small heat shock protein HSP25. In the cerebellum of the homozygous weaver mouse, in which a subpopulation of HSP25-ir Purkinje cells are located ectopically, the corresponding Sst28-ir mossy fiber projection is also ectopic, suggesting a role for a specific Purkinje cell subset in afferent pattern formation. Likewise, in the scrambler mutant mouse, Sst28-ir mossy fibers show a very close association with HSP25-ir Purkinje cell clusters. HSP25 itself does not appear to be critical for normal patterning, however in the KJR mouse, which does not express cerebellar HSP25, Sst28 expression appears to be normal. Likewise, the Purkinje cell patterning antigens zebrin II and HSP25 are expressed normally in both Sst- and Sst-receptor knockout mice, suggesting that somatostatinergic transmission is not necessary for Purkinje cell stripe formation.