Natural killer (NK) cells are innate immune lymphocytes that express a heterogeneous repertoire of germline-encoded receptors and undergo a distinct pattern of maturation. CD57 is a marker of terminal differentiation on human CD8(+) T cells. Very few newborn or fetal NK cells express CD57; however, the frequency of CD57-bearing NK cells increases with age. We assessed the transcriptional, phenotypic, and functional differences between CD57(+) and CD57(-) NK cells within the CD56(dim) mature NK subset. CD57(+) NK cells express a repertoire of NK-cell receptors, suggestive of a more mature phenotype, and proliferate less when stimulated with target cells and/or cytokines. By contrast, a higher frequency of CD57(+) NK cells produced interferon-γ and demonstrated more potent lytic activity when these cells were stimulated through the activating receptor CD16; however, they are less responsive to stimulation by interleukin-12 and interleukin-18. Finally, CD57 expression is induced on CD57(-)CD56(dim) NK cells after activation by interleukin-2. A combination of a mature phenotype, a higher cytotoxic capacity, a higher sensitivity to stimulation via CD16, with a decreased responsiveness to cytokines, and a decreased capacity to proliferate suggest that CD57(+) NK cells are highly mature and might be terminally differentiated.