Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a severe lung disease with unknown aetiology, is thought to have an important genetic component. Single nucleotide polymorphism, C5507G, of the complement receptor 1 (CR1) gene, which affects the number of CR1 molecules on erythrocytes, has been associated with susceptibility to IPF in a single European population. To replicate this finding, 53 Czech IPF patients with 203 Czech healthy control subjects and 70 English IPF patients with 149 English controls were investigated. In both populations, there were no significant differences in distribution of CR1 C5507G variants between IPF patients and their appropriate control groups. In conclusion, the association of the CR1 C5507G polymorphism with susceptibility to IPF was not reproducible in Czech and English populations.