Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) has been proposed as a contributory factor in pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The aim of the current study was to explore the possible association of the MCP-1-2518A/G genetic polymorphism and plasma levels of MCP-1 in patients with paranoid schizophrenia. The MCP-1-2518A/G (rs1024611) polymorphism and blood levels of MCP-1 in patients with paranoid schizophrenia and healthy subjects were evaluated and compared. One hundred and three chronic patients with paranoid schizophrenia treated with neuroleptics and 105 healthy subjects were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) and their MCP-1 plasma levels were measured by a solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). When comparisons were made between patients and controls, the frequency of the MCP-1-2518*G minor allele (35% vs 23%, p=0.009, OR=1.77, 95% CI 1.1-2.04) and also of the MCP-1-2518*G carriers (60% vs 40%, p=0.003, OR=2.27, 95% CI 1.13-2.01) were higher in patients. The mean value of the MCP-1 plasma level in patients with schizophrenia was significantly higher than in controls. Interestingly, the patients with the GG genotype had the highest MCP-1 level (711.4 ± 211.4 pg/ml), followed by those with the AG genotype (472.1 ± 135.8 pg/ml) and AA (372.4 ± 180.2 pg/ml) homozygotes. In conclusion, we report here the association of the -2518A/G genetic polymorphism and increased plasma levels of MCP-1 with schizophrenia and nominate -2518*G minor allele as a risk factor for schizophrenia in Armenian population.