Simian immunodeficiency virus infection of macaques is a model for human immunodeficiency virus infection of humans. In vivo-titrated stocks of SIV are essential for the utilization of this model for vaccine development. The elicitation of anti-human cell antibodies by some vaccines prepared in human cells and the related protective effects of the vaccine produced in human cells suggest a need for new macaque-derived SIV stocks. Here we describe the titration and characterization of two stocks of SIVmac that were produced in primary rhesus macaque cells. The first virus is SIVmac251, isolated from tissues of macaque 251, and the second is a molecular clone designated as SIVmac239. A 50% rhesus monkey infectious dose (MID50) was titrated for each virus stock by intravenous inoculation. An additional five macaques were inoculated with 10 MID50 of the SIVmac251 stock and were followed for disease outcome. All five monkeys developed antigenemia by 14 days postchallenge. Two of the five monkeys developed strong anti-SIV humoral immunity, whereas three developed little or no humoral immunity. As has been observed previously, the rapidity of disease progression correlated with the lack of a strong antibody response. The three animals with low humoral immunity died within 7 months of challenge, with antigenemia, cachexia, hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, weight loss, and intractable diarrhea, while maintaining their circulating CD4 numbers. One animal died at 1.5 years of more typical simian AIDS.