Microarray analysis of infection by Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus (STIV) revealed insights into the timing and extent of virus transcription, as well as differential regulation of host genes. Using a microarray containing genes from both the host and the virus, the infection cycle of STIV was studied. Following infection of Sulfolobus solfataricus strain 2-2-12 with STIV, transcription of virus genes was first detected at 8 h postinfection (p.i.), with a peak at 24 h p.i. Lysis of cells was first detected at 32 h p.i. There was little temporal control of the transcription of virus genes, although the three open reading frames on the noncoding strand were transcribed later in the infection process. During the infection, 177 host genes were determined to be differentially expressed, with 124 genes up-regulated and 53 genes down-regulated. The up-regulated genes were dominated by genes associated with DNA replication and repair and those of unknown function, while the down-regulated genes, mostly detected at 32 h p.i., were associated with energy production and metabolism. Examination of infected cells by transmission electron microscopy revealed alterations in cell ultrastructure consistent with the microarray analysis. The observed patterns of transcription suggest that up-regulated genes are likely used by the virus to reprogram the cell for virus replication, while the down-regulated genes reflect the imminent lysis of the cells.