This study analyzed the antigen-specific (Gag, Nef, Rev, and Tat) IgM, IgG, and IgA humoral responses during the first 200 days of SIVmac251 infection in cynomolgus macaques. These responses were tested for correlation with the CD4(+) T-cell-related hematologic parameters and viral load throughout the course of the study (acute and chronic infection, during and after antiretroviral therapy). Strong inverse correlations were observed between the percentage of CD4(+) T cells at almost every timepoint of the study and the levels of IgM (but not IgG and IgA) against Gag, Nef, and Rev (but not Tat) measured after, but not during, the primary peak of IgM response. Significant levels of persistent antigen-specific IgMs may reflect the prevalence of mature plasma cells that have not undergone immunoglobulin class switching, possibly due to defects in helper T-cell function. Strong correlations were observed between the preinfection CD4(+) T-cell count or CD4/CD8 ratio and the same parameters measured throughout the study, suggesting the importance of preinfection immune status as a determinant of disease progression. The negative correlations between the post-acute-phase IgM levels and the percentage of CD4(+) T cells at later times during the study suggest the potential prognostic value of this measurement.