The loss of CD4(+) T cells and the impairment of CD8(+) T cell function in HIV infection suggest that pharmacological treatment with IL-7 and IL-15, cytokines that increase the homeostatic proliferation of T cells and improve effector function, may be beneficial. However, these cytokines could also have a detrimental effect in HIV-1-infected individuals, because both cytokines increase HIV replication in vitro. We assessed the impact of IL-7 and IL-15 treatment on viral replication and the immunogenicity of live poxvirus vaccines in SIV(mac251)-infected macaques (Macaca mulatta). Neither cytokine augmented the frequency of vaccine-expanded CD4(+) or CD8(+) memory T cells, clonal recruitment to the SIV-specific CD8(+) T cell pool, or CD8(+) T cell function. Vaccination alone transiently decreased the viral set point following antiretroviral therapy suspension. IL-15 induced massive proliferation of CD4(+) effector T cells and abrogated the ability of vaccination to decrease set point viremia. In contrast, IL-7 neither augmented nor decreased the vaccine effect and was associated with a decrease in TGF-beta expression. These results underscore the importance of testing immunomodulatory approaches in vivo to assess potential risks and benefits for HIV-1-infected individuals.