Candidate vaccine ChimeriVax viruses are attenuated, efficacious, safe, and highly unlikely to be transmitted by arthropod vectors. Nevertheless, concerns have been raised about the use of these vaccines because of the potential for recombination between vaccine and wild-type (WT) strains. To evaluate the vertebrate pathogenicity of such a worst-case recombinant, ChimeriVax-dengue (DEN) 4 virus was chimerized with the WT Asibi yellow fever virus. In this worst-case scenario, chimeric viruses remained fully attenuated in nonhuman primates. We therefore conclude that, even in the highly unlikely event of "virulent" backbone reversion, the safety of ChimeriVax-DEN vaccines would not be compromised.