Recent data supports that increased expression of PD-1, a negative regulator of immune function, is associated with T cell exhaustion during chronic viral infection. However, PD-1 expression during acute infection and vaccination has not been studied in great detail in primates. Here, we examine PD-1 expression on CD3(+) T cells following DNA vaccination or lentiviral infection of macaques. Ex vivo peptide stimulation of PBMC from DNA-vaccinated uninfected macaques revealed a temporal increase in PD-1 expression in proliferating antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells. Following the initial increase, PD-1 expression steadily declined as proliferation continued, with a concomitant increase in IFN-gamma secretion. Subsequent examination of PD-1 expression on T cells from uninfected and lentivirus-infected non-vaccinated macaques revealed a significant increase in PD-1 expression with lentiviral infection, consistent with previous reports. PD-1 expression was highest on cells with activated memory and effector phenotypes. Despite their decreased telomere length, PD-1(hi) T cell populations do not appear to have statistically significant uncapped telomeres, typically indicative of proliferative exhaustion, suggesting a different mechanistic regulation of proliferation by PD-1. Our data indicate that PD-1 expression is increased as a result of T cell activation during a primary immune response as well as during persistent immune activation in macaques.